Monday, 22 October 2007

Internet Censorship on academic research on Racial Differences

The following articles relate to the physiological differences related to race which are based on inheritence, and hence genetic , factors.

To say that the genetic reality of race does not exist is blatant lie propagated by pseudo-scientists with an overt political agenda such as Steven Rose.

The following articles are those that stil appear on the internet regarding scientific evidence of racial differences, the list of articles below that are copies of internet are articles that have been removed by Google ;

This is scientific censorship.

Ever since 1758, when the Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus created the classification system still used in biology today, most zoologists have recognized at least the four human subdivisions Linnaeus delineated: Asians, American Indians, Europeans, and Africans. (Technically, some would group the first two Linnaean subdivisions together, thus yielding three major races, often termed, mongoloids, caucasoids, and negroids.) Such high-level classifications do not rule out making finer, hierarchical subdivisions within these major groups.

A race is what zoologists term a variety or subdivision of a species. Each race (or variety) is characterized by a more or less distinct combination of inherited morphological, behavioral, physiological traits. In flowers, insects, and non-human mammals, zoologists consistently and routinely study the process of racial differentiation. Formation of a new race takes place when, over several generations, individuals in one group reproduce more frequently among themselves than they do with individuals in other groups. This process is most apparent when the individuals live in diverse geographic areas and therefore evolve unique, recognizable adaptations (such as skin color) that are advantageous in their specific environments. But differentiation also occurs under less extreme circumstances. Zoologists and evolutionists refer to such differentiated populations as races. (Within the formal taxonomic nomenclature of biology, races are termed subspecies). Zoologists have identified two or more races (subspecies) in most mammalian species.

Here I will briefly summarize the findings. Asians and Africans consistently aggregate at opposite ends, with Europeans intermediate, on a continuum that includes over 60 anatomical and social variables. These 60 variables include brain size, intelligence, sexual habits, fertility, personality, temperament, speed of maturation, and longevity. If race were an arbitrary, socially-constructed concept, devoid of all biological meaning, such consistent relationships would not exist.

Those objecting to the concept of race argue that the taxonomic definitions are arbitrary and subjective. Although critics are correct to point out that the variation within each race is extremely large, that there is disagreement as to exactly how many races there are, and that there is a blurring of category edges because of admixture, they are in error when they claim that classifications are arbitrary. For example, race-critic Jared Diamond, in the 1994 issue of Discover magazine, surveyed half a dozen geographically variable traits and formed very different races depending on which traits he picked. Classifying people using anti-malarial genes, lactose tolerance, fingerprint patterns, or skin color resulted in the Swedes of Europe being placed in the same category as the Xhosa and Fulani of Africa, the Ainu of Japan, and the Italians of Europe.

Jared Diamond's classifications, however, are arbitrary and nonsensical because they have little, if any, predictive value beyond the initial classification. More significantly, they confuse the scientific meaning of race, that is, a recognizable (or distinguishable) geographic population. In everyday life, as in evolutionary biology, a "negroid" is someone whose ancestors were born in sub-Saharan Africa, and likewise for a "caucasoid" and a "mongoloid." This definition fits with the temporal bounds offered by the best current theory of human evolution. Thus, since Homo sapiens first appeared in Africa about 200,000 years ago, branched off into Europe about 110,000 years ago, and into Asia 70,000 years after that, a "negroid" is someone whose ancestors, between 4,000 and (to accommodate recent migrations) 20 generations ago, were born in sub-Saharan Africa -- and likewise, for a caucasoid and a mongoloid.

Social definitions -- that is, self-identification and other-identification actually accord quite well with the physical evidence. Mongoloids, caucasoids, and negroids can be distinguished on the basis of obvious differences in skeletal morphology, hair and facial features, as well by blood groups and DNA fingerprints. Forensic anthropologists regularly classify skeletons of decomposed bodies by race. For example, narrow nasal passages and a short distance between eye sockets identify a caucasoid person, distinct cheekbones characterize a mongoloid person, and nasal openings shaped like an upside down heart typify a negroid person. In certain criminal investigations, the race of a perpetrator can be identified from blood, semen, and hair samples. To deny the predictive validity of race at this level is nonscientific and unrealistic.

The mean pattern of educational and economic achievement within multi-racial countries such as Canada and the United States has increasingly been found to prove valid internationally. For example, it is not often recognized, perhaps because it contradicts the politically correct theories that intelligence is purely a matter of socio-economic conditions, that Asian-Americans and Asians in Asia often outscore white Americans and white Europeans on IQ tests and on tests of educational achievement (even though the tests were largely developed by Europeans and white Americans for use in a Euro-American culture). Blacks in the Caribbean, Britain, Canada and sub-Saharan Africa as well as in the United States have low IQ scores relative to whites. For violent crime, analyses of INTERPOL data from the 1980s and 1990s show the same international distribution that occurs within the United States (that is, Asians least, Europeans in the middle, and Africans most). A similar racial gradient is found both within the U.S. and globally for measures of sexual activity and frequencies of sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS (based on World Health Organization data).

One neurohormonal contributor to crime and reproductive behavior is testosterone. Studies show that black college students and military veterans have 3% to 19% more testosterone than their white counterparts. The Japanese have even lower amounts than whites. Sex hormones are circulated throughout the body and are known to activate many brain-behavior systems involving aggression and reproduction. For example, around the world the rate of dizygotic twinning per 1,000 births (caused by a double ovulation), is less than 4 among Asians, 8 among Europeans, and 16 or greater among Africans. The differences in multiple birthing are known to be heritable through the race of the mother regardless of the race of the father, as found in Asian/European matings in Hawaii and European/African matings in Brazil.

Publication of The Bell Curve brought widespread public attention to the research on race that has been accumulating over the last 30 years in technical and specialist journals that demonstrably challenges each and every article of the dogma of biological egalitarianism. Startling, and alarming to many, is the conclusion that follows from these data that if all people were treated the same, most average race differences would not disappear. With egalitarianism under siege, there has been a major effort to get the "race genie" back in the bottle, to squeeze the previously tabooed toothpaste back into the tube, to suppress or deny the latest scientific evidence on race, genetics, and behavior.

Regardless of the extent to which the media promote "politically correct," but scientifically wrong, resolutions from professional societies such as the American Anthropological Association, facts remain facts and require appropriate scientific, not political, explanation. On average, the Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese are more similar to each other and are different from Australians, Israelis and the Swedes, who in turn are similar to each other and are different from Nigerians, Kenyans, and Jamaicans. None of this should be construed as meaning that environmental factors play no part individual development. But with each passing year and each new study, the evidence for the genetic contribution to individual and group differences becomes more firmly established than ever.

Hominids first evolved in tropical and subtropical latitudes, most probably reaching sapiens status in the highlands of East Africa. From this ancestral population some groups migrated north into Eurasia and evolved there into the Caucasoids and Mongoloids. Colonizing temperate and cold environments, they encountered the cognitively demanding problems of survival in cold winters. These problems consisted principally of securing a food supply by hunting large animals and of keeping warm in winter by making fires, clothing and shelters. Survival in these difficult conditions acted as a selection pressure favoring enhanced intelligence and explains why the Caucasoids and the Mongoloids are the races which have evolved the highest intelligence.

In a previous paper the world literature on racial differences in intelligence was reviewed (Lynn, 1991). It was shown that the Caucasoid peoples of North America, Britain, Continental Europe and Australasia obtain mean IQs of around 100. Mongoloid peoples in East Asia and in North America typically obtain mean IQs a little higher in the range of 101-108. They are also characterized by strong visuospatial abilities and weaker verbal abilities. The same pattern is found in the Amerindians, but the level of their intelligence is lower with a mean of about 90.

Negroid peoples are generally considered to have a mean IQ of approximately 85, but this is only true of those in the United States and Britain. African Negroids have a mean IQ in the region of 70. American and British Negroids are more properly considered as Negroid --Caucasoid hybrids, and hybridization has evidently raised their intelligence levels to about midway between the two parent races. The South East Asian races consisting of Micronesians, Melanesians, Polynesians, Maoris and Australian Aborigines typically have mean IQs in the range of 80-90.

These differences in intelligence test performance are corroborated by racial differences in the building of civilization. Only the Mongoloids and the Caucasians have built civilizations and all the discoveries and inventions from early metal working to the contemporary scientific advances have been made by these two races. The consistency of the racial differences in intelligence test performance and contributions to civilization suggests that they have a genetic basis, as argued in detail by Jensen ( 1972, 1973, 1980).

April 25th, 2006

Of the more than 40,000 persons who die each year in the U.S. from pulmonary fibrosis, the mortality rate among African-Americans is twice as high Caucasians. According to a physiologist from Belarus who's worked at the Medical University of South Carolina for almost 10 years, the discrepancy can be traced to a key growth factor.

Skin color and thus melanin content of the skin are a most striking differences characterizing racial groups. Is skin function related to skin color 7 Is skin color related to modulation of racial differences in skin responses to chemical and environmental agents ?

Racial differences in skin function have been investigated: Weigand et al (1,2) showed increased intracellular cohesion in blacks; Reinertson and Wheatley (3) higher lipid content in black skin; furthermore, blacks have higher electrical skin resistance levels that whites (4,5).

Mechanisms explaining these differences are minimally documented. By measuring some biophysical parameters of the skin, we have investigated and classified racial differences in skin reactions after a variety of stimuli with the hypothesis that understanding the basic skin differences among the races will provide insights into skin function.

Several small studies have shown racial differences in endothelial-dependent forearm vascular resistance[18,19] or brachial artery dilatation.[11,20] Perregaux et al studied brachial FMD in 52 healthy, nonsmoking participants (24 African American, 28 age-matched Caucasians) between the ages of 20 and 47.[11] The percent change was significantly lower in African Americans (1.76 ± 0.56%) compared to age-matched Caucasians (8.79 ± 1.22%, P < .05). Additionally, significant differences in absolute change in brachial FMD by sex in Caucasians existed (P < .05); however, there was no significant difference by sex in African Americans. Although P values were not provided, African American women had less brachial artery FMD compared to Caucasian women.

The following academic articles on racial differences have been removed from the Internet by Google - though those interested could get the articles themselves if they applied;

Racial Differences in Hemodynamic Responses to Environmental ...Covariance analyses indicated that the racial differences during cold ..... Sex differences in physiological responses to stress and in coronary heart ...;101/19/2284 - Similar pages

Racial Differences in Endothelial FunctionStudies of physiological mechanisms to support racial differences in vasoreactivity have found elevated levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1), ... - Similar pages

Racial Differences in Blood Pressure and Forearm Vascular physiological and psychological stresses,. the results would suggest the presence of. important racial differences in neurogenic ... - Similar pages

Using Genetic Admixture to Explain Racial Differences in Insulin ...One way to investigate putative genetic factors contributing to racial differences in complex physiological traits such as insulin sensitivity (SI) is by ... - Similar pages

Sex and Racial Differences in Pharmacological Response: Effect of ...There are known physiological differences be-. tween the skin of males and females and between. the skin types of various racial and ethnic popu-. lations. ... - Similar pages

Racial Differences in Hemodynamic Responses to Environmental ...These results suggest that the locus of racial differences in vascular reactivity ..... Classic physiological models have postulated that a hyperdynamic ... - Similar pages

A Physiological Basis for Disparities in Diabetes and Heart ...It is tempting to ascribe these racial/ethnic differences to genetic influences (21 .... Ludwig, D. S. (2002) The glycemic index: physiological mechanisms ... - Similar pages

Racial Differences in the Relaxation Response of Hypertensives ...with white females on the physiological. variables, results were similar to .... Anderson NB, Lane JD, Muranaka M, Williams RB Jr: Racial differences in ... - Similar pages

Racial Differences in Endothelin-1 at Rest and in Response to ...The underlying physiological mechanisms responsible for enhanced vasoconstrictive .... Data AnalysesInitial analyses of possible racial differences in ... - Similar pages
[ More results from ]

Racial Differences in Insulin Secretion and Sensitivity in ...Using Genetic Admixture to Explain Racial Differences in Insulin-Related ... A Physiological Basis for Disparities in Diabetes and Heart Disease Risk among ... - Similar pages

Racial differences in lipid metabolism in women with abdominal ...Palmitate Ra across a physiological range of plasma epinephrine ... Therefore, it is possible that racial differences in lipolytic sensitivity to insulin or ... - Similar pages

abdominal obesity Racial differences in lipid metabolism in women withPhysiological Society, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda MD 20814-3991. ... sible that racial differences in lipolytic sensitivity to ... - Similar pages

Here the article on the scientist H. J. Eysenck has been removed from the Internet and only the cached refernce to his work on racial differences exists ;

Eysenck is most famous for his criticism of psychotherapy (see Eysenck, 1957), his rigorous, measurement-based approach to the study of personality, and for his ability to translate psychological ideas for the popular press. His work on human intelligence is also notable. In 1969, Eysenck’s student Arthur Jensen published a controversial paper asserting that racial differences in intelligence test scores might have genetic origins (Jensen, 1969). Eysenck defended Jensen, and received much criticism in the ensuing controversy. Eysenck later published his own evidence that biological processes might be implicated in racial differences in intelligence (see Eysenck, 1971). By the time he wrote his 1990 autobiography, he had moderated his views to give more weight to environmental influences (Mclaughlin, 2000).

Racial Differences in Adipocyte Size and Relationship to the ...Objective: To determine whether racial differences exist in the ..... study is needed to determine the true physiological basis for these racial differences ... - Similar pages

Uncoupling proteins: a molecular basis for racial differences in ...What other UCP alleles influence observed racial differences in EE? ... Physiological effects of variants in human uncoupling proteins: UCP2 influences ... - Similar pages

Racism and Psychological and Emotional Injury: Recognizing and ...Racial differences in combat-related PTSD: Empirical findings and ... Physiological responses to racism and discrimination: An assessment of the evidence. ... - Similar pages

Racial Differences in SportsRacial Differences in Athletics: What’s Ethics Got To Do With It? ..... types and physiological reactions reveal the prerequisites for superior athletic ... - 80k - Cached - Similar pages

Stress Reactivity and Type A Behavior"Racial differences in cardiovascular reactivity to mental arithmetic. ... in part from physiological differences in sympathetic nervous system reactivity. ... - 20k - Cached - Similar pages

In Situ Lipolytic Responses to Isoproterenol and Physiological ...It cannot be excluded that racial differences would be present at lower ... to isoproterenol and physiological stressors in abdominal sc adipose tissue in ... - Similar pages

Uncoupling proteins: a molecular basis for racial differences in ...specific alleles of specific genes that contribute to racial differences .... Physiological effects of vari-. ants in human uncoupling proteins: UCP2 ... - Similar pages

Racial differences in the results of glaucoma filtration surgery ...In vivo biophysical characterization of skin physiological differences in races. ... Maibach H. Cutaneous reactive hyperaemia: racial differences induced by ... - Similar pages

Arousal and Cognition: Race, Arousal, and Reminiscence -- Farley ...[Abstract/Free Full Text]; Johnson, L. C. and M. N. Landon (1965) "Eccrine sweat gland activity and racial differences in resting skin conductance. ... - Similar pages

Here is another article that has been removed and only the cached version remains ;

New Indicators for Predicting Hypertension in African-American Males
Young males with the disease are found to have arteries with a diminished capacity to expand in response to blood pressure

New Orleans, LA -- The threat of hypertension is real and deadly. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, 23 percent of Americans ages 20-74 suffer from hypertension (more commonly known as high blood pressure). Some 15,000 die each year from this disorder; more than 32 million visit the doctor's office each year for treatment, but the disease affects African Americans disproportionately.


African-American males are at higher risk for hypertension than other demographic groups. An estimated 35 percent of African American men have this disorder, leading to staggering financial costs related to medical and disability expenses.

For years, the scientific community has stated that a variety of environmental, behavioral and biological factors have been proposed to account for the racial differences in the prevalence and severity of hypertension. A new research study suggests that arterial compliance may be an indicator of potential hypertension in African American males.

@article {Chen:2006:0312-5963:957, author = "Chen, Mei-Ling ...For example, racial differences in the first-pass metabolism of a drug following ... For example, greater ethnic/racial differences were observed in oral ...;jsessionid=7hq2dnu6jd1pv.alice?format=bib - Similar pages

Ethnic Differences in Stressors, Resources, and Psychological ...Psychological and physiological health in African American and Caucasian ... Racial differences in family support and formal service utilization among older ... - Similar pages

REVIEW RACIAL DIFFERENCES IN ALCOHOL SENSITIVITYThe de- tions of racial differences, objective and sub- ... (Wolff, 1972) suggests that physiological fac- flushing phenomenon and suggestions for fu- ... - Similar pages

Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status and the Health of Pregnant ...Racial differences in physical and mental health: Socio-economic status, stress and discrimination . Journal of Health Psychology, 2(3), 335-351 . ... - Similar pages

The Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study: Objectives and Design

The REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study is a national, population-based, longitudinal study of 30,000 African-American and white adults aged 45 years. The objective is to determine the causes for the excess stroke mortality in the Southeastern US and among African-Americans.

Summary.--The incidences of malignant melanoma recorded by 59 population-based cancer registries were investigated to determine the effects of racial and skin-colour differences. White populations exhibited a wide range of melanoma incidences and females commonly, though not invariably, had a higher incidence than males. Non-white populations experienced in general a much lower incidence of melanoma although there was some overlap of white and non-white rates. No predominant sex difference emerged among non-whites.

Race and Increased Risk of Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer exhibits considerable racial and ethnic variation. Men of Asian descent, for example, have a very low incidence and mortality from prostate cancer, while African-American men have the highest incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in the world

Racial differences in heat tolerance
Paul T. Baker
Biophysics Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania

Coronary Calcium, Race, and Genes -- Manolio and Bild 22 (3): 359 ...This is not the first study to demonstrate racial differences in coronary calcium .... of the many social, medical, and physiological concomitants of race. ... - Similar pages

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