It is my theory that Haplogroup R is the genetic legacy of an infusion of Northern Neanderthal DNA via breeding.
The people we call Cro-Magnons are a hybrid of Homo Sapiens and Northern Neanderthals based on Haplogroup R 1 b.
The Cro-Magnons are the descendants of the R haplogroup that became the R 1 b Haplogroup.
The initial infusion of Neanderthal genes began at the point of the origin of Haplgroup R.
The ice age began 100,000 years ago but during the last Ice Age the mixed Neanderthal and Homo Sapiens population of Northern Europe were isolated and therefore the Northern European R 1 b haplogroups contain more Neanderthal DNA than the rest of the Haplogroup R.
The rest of Haplogroup spread out from the initial contact breeding point of the Homo Sapiens and Neanderthals and hence the neanderthal traits were diluted and disseminated into the wider homo sapiens gene pool.
Only in the North of Europe where the population remained isolated did the Haplogroup R 1 b evolve.
The Northern Neanderthals did not dissapear, they were absorbed into the incoming Homo Sapiens population that became haplogroup R and which then evolved to become haplogroup R 1 b.
It appears that the males of the Neanderthals passed on their DNA via Homo Sapiens females - as no M Haplogroups have so far revealed any Neanderthal DNA.
The change in the physical shape of the Cro-Magnon peoples was a result of this mixing of Homo Sapiens and Neanderthal DNA.
The Haplogroup R represents the moment the Cro-Magnons were created when they bred with Northern Neanderthals around 40-50,000 years ago.
There were three periods of interbreeding between modern humans and another human species.
One period of interbreeding occurred around 60,000 years ago in the eastern Mediterranean resulting in the Cro-Magnons who derived from a mixture of Homo Sapiens and Northern Neanderthals and created Haplogroup R. The Southern Neanderthals also bred with Homo Sapiens at this time in Asia and created the Oriental Haplogroups.
The other period of interbreeding occurred around 45,000 years ago in eastern Asia, where Homo Sapiens bred with Southern Neanderthals, the Denisovans, resulting in the injection of Denisovan DNA into the Homo Sapiens gene pool and creating the Melanesians.
The Third period of interbreeding happened during the last Ice Age when Haplogroup R 1 b arose in Northern Europe. This represents a massive infusion of Neanderthal DNA into the Cro-Magnon lineage.
The Cro-Magnon R 1 b haplogroup evolved into the various ethnic Nordic and Celtic sub sets of the R 1 b and associated haplogroup subtypes we see today.
The Keltoi ( Celtic Nordics ) and Skythai ( Slavs ) are the results of evolutions of the R 1 b haplogroup.
The Franco-Russian anthropologist Deniker divided the light-pigmented Northern Europeans into a race nordique and a race orientale.
Both Celtic Nordics and Slavs are descended from the Cro-Magnons.
The father of evolution Charles Darwin was a direct descendant of the Cro-Magnon people, whose entry into Europe 30,000 years ago heralded the demise of Neanderthals, scientists revealed in Australia Thursday.
Darwin, who hypothesised that all humans evolved from common ancestors in his seminal 1859 work "On the Origin of Species", came from Haplogroup R1b, one of the most common European male lineages, said genealogist Spencer Wells.
"Men belonging to Haplogroup R1b are direct descendants of the Cro-Magnon people who, beginning 30,000 years ago, dominated the human expansion into Europe and heralded the demise of the Neanderthal species," Wells said.
Director of the Genographic Project, an international study mapping the migratory history of the human species, Wells said they took a DNA sample from Darwin's great-great grandson Chris Darwin, 48, who lives on the outskirts of Sydney.
A trace of Darwin's "deep ancestry" showed his forefathers left Africa around 45,000 years ago, splitting into a new lineage 5,000 years later in Iran or southern Central Asia, Wells said.
"Before heading west towards Europe, the next mutation, which defined a new lineage, appeared in a man around 35,000 years ago,' he said.
"Approximately 70 percent of men in southern England belong to Haplogroup R1b, and in parts of Ireland and Spain that number exceeds 90 percent", he added.
Chris Darwin, whose great-grandfather was Darwin's astronomer son George, is a tour guide and adventurer in the Blue Mountains west of Sydney.
He migrated to Australia in 1986 and tests of his maternal DNA showed he was likely directly descended from the women who crossed the rugged Caucasus Mountains in southern Russia to reach the steppes of the Black Sea.
"The Genographic Project is incredibly important," Darwin said.
"The project is one way to show us the true story of humanity, of how we migrated across the world and that we are all related, tracing back to a small group of men and women who lived in Africa".
Wells was presenting the findings ahead of the project's annual scientific conference, bringing together representatives from 11 regional teams to discuss their work in Sydney.
There are currently 265,000 members of the public taking part in the project, which is an initiative of National Geographic, IBM and the California-based Waitt Family Foundation charity.
Participation kits can be bought online for 100 US dollars, and proceeds go towards the research and to indigenous language and cultural projects.