Wednesday 29 April 2009
The Genetic Map Of Europe
The next time some insane genocidal Liberal Fascist says 'there are no indigenous British people' then send them this link ;
Not only are all the indigenous European people a unique related racial group, but also DNA tests can now reveal which nation we come from as the ethnic groups derived from the European racial group have unique DNA sequences which can be linked to a geo-specific region.
Also read the article in The Guardian below. This article points out that the future of medicine is race and ethnic based medicines called Pharmacogenomics, and race and ethnic DNA differences have a vast impact on disease and treatments for disease.
So the next time some Liberal Fascist says there are no indigenous British people then we can tell them they are insane, genocidal criminals who wish to ensure future generations die of diseases because the existence of race based medicines conflicts with their outdated and obsolete 20 th century Marxist rubbish that there are no races, just one human race.
Biologists have constructed a genetic map of Europe showing the degree of relatedness between its various populations.
All the populations are quite similar, but the differences are sufficient that it should be possible to devise a forensic test to tell which country in Europe an individual probably comes from, said Manfred Kayser, a geneticist at the Erasmus University Medical Center in the Netherlands.
The map shows, at right, the location in Europe where each of the sampled populations live and, at left, the genetic relationship between these 23 populations. The map was constructed by Dr. Kayser, Dr. Oscar Lao and others, and appears in an article in Current Biology published online on August 7.
The genetic map of Europe bears a clear structural similarity to the geographic map. The major genetic differences are between populations of the north and south (the vertical axis of the map shows north-south differences, the horizontal axis those of east-west). The area assigned to each population reflects the amount of genetic variation in it.
Europe has been colonized three times in the distant past, always from the south. Some 45,000 years ago the first modern humans entered Europe from the south. The glaciers returned around 20,000 years ago and the second colonization occurred about 17,000 years ago by people returning from southern refuges. The third invasion was that of farmers bringing the new agricultural technology from the Near East around 10,000 years ago.
The pattern of genetic differences among present day Europeans probably reflects the impact of these three ancient migrations, Dr. Kayser said.
The map also identifies the existence of two genetic barriers within Europe. One is between the Finns (light blue, upper right) and other Europeans. It arose because the Finnish population was at one time very small and then expanded, bearing the atypical genetics of its few founders.
The other is between Italians (yellow, bottom center) and the rest. This may reflect the role of the Alps in impeding free flow of people between Italy and the rest of Europe.
Data for the map were generated by gene chips programmed to test and analyze 500,000 sites of common variation on the human genome, although only the 300,000 most reliable sites were used for the map. Dr. Kayser's team tested almost 2,500 people and analyzed the data by correlating the genetic variations in all the subjects. The genetic map is based on the two strongest of these sets of correlations.
The gene chips require large amounts of DNA, more than is available in most forensic samples. Dr. Kayser hopes to identify the sites on the human genome which are most diagnostic for European origin. These sites, if reasonably few in number, could be tested for in hair and blood samples, Dr. Kayser said.
Genomic sites that carry the strongest signal of variation among populations may be those influenced by evolutionary change, Dr. Kayser said. Of the 100 strongest sites, 17 are found in the region of the genome that confers lactose tolerance, an adaptation that arose among a cattle herding culture in northern Europe some 5,000 years ago. Most people switch off the lactose digesting gene after weaning, but the cattle herders evidently gained a great survival advantage by keeping the gene switched on through adulthood.
Detailed gene map will lift lid on diseases
Ian Sample, science correspondent
The Guardian, Wednesday 23 January 2008
An ambitious project to create the most detailed picture of human genetic variation yet has been launched by British and American scientists.
The 1000 Genomes Project will map the tiny fraction of genetic material that differs between people, giving scientists unprecedented insight into why some are more susceptible to disease than others.
Scientists know that any two humans are more than 99% identical on the genetic level. The remaining fraction helps explain differences in people's health.
The $50m (£26m) map, which is expected to take three years to complete, will be made freely available, allowing scientists to pinpoint the genetic causes of common disorders swiftly and help tailor medical treatments to individual patients. Researchers will scan the genetic make-up of at least 1,000 people who either live in, or have ancestry tracing back to, Europe, Africa, Japan, China, India and Mexico. From these scientists will create a catalogue of genetic variation found in as few as 1% of the population.
"Such a project would have been unthinkable only two years ago," said Dr Richard Durbin, a geneticist at the Welcome Trust's Sanger Institute in Cambridge, who co-chairs the project. "We are moving forward to building a tool that will greatly expand and further accelerate efforts to find more of the genetic factors involved in human health and disease."
Since the 13-year-long Human Genome Project was completed in 2003, scientists have strived to look deeper into 3bn pairs of letters that form the human book of life. One, the HapMap project, has revealed large-scale genetic variations between populations, which have helped scientists identify more than 100 regions linked to conditions such as obesity, diabetes, heart disease and cancer.
Scientists look for genetic causes of disease by comparing genome scans from healthy people with sick people. But these studies usually only point to vague regions in the genetic code that may be hundreds of thousands of letters long.
"This project will give scientists a complete map of all the variation in that region, so they'll be able to use it to tease apart what might cause the illness and that will lead to better diagnosis and better understanding of the disease," said Durbin.
The project will begin this year with three pilot studies. The first will involve an in-depth scan of two families; the second will sequence the genomes of 180 people, while the third will examine 1,000 genes in 1,000 people. The main project will begin next year.